What Is End To End Encryption?

What Is End To End Encryption?

Updated: 08-31-2021

Nowadays, communication services and social media platforms alike have embraced end-to-end encryption. So what exactly does end-to-end encryption mean? Well, here's a brief explanation.

When a communication channel implements end-to-end encryption, it uses asymmetric encryption that enables the sender and receiver of information to communicate without sending the secret key over an insecure network. To understand end-to-end encryption, you need to know how encryption works.

On that note, here's an overview of what's to come:

  • What's encryption?
  • What's end-to-end encryption?
  • How does end-to-end encryption work?
  • Advantages of end-to-end encryption
  • End-to-end encryption limitations
  • Is end-to-end encryption hackable?
  • History of end-to-end encryption
  • Apps that use end-to-end encryption
  • Do you need end-to-end encryption?
  • End-to-end encryption opponents

What's Encryption?

You can send data in two forms; plaintext or ciphertext.

Plain text is an unencrypted message in human-readable form, while ciphertext is an unintelligible form of encrypted text. Data sent in plain text is the least secure because anyone can intercept it and read its contents.

Unencrypted data packets are vulnerable to various threats, including theft. This is because they pass through unknown servers, routers, and devices before reaching their destination. As a result, they can be easily intercepted while on transit.

For instance, data sent by Short Message Service is usually unencrypted and can be intercepted by anyone. Therefore, encryption protects your data and privacy.

Encryption is the process of converting plaintext to ciphertext and making the data impossible for a third party to intercept, read or understand.

The computer mechanism used to scramble the data is known as an encryption algorithm. The algorithm uses an encryption key, a long string of numbers, to scramble plain text.  

Encryption relies on mathematical functions to obscure data, preventing access without the proper decryption key. The decryption key is essentially a password for the data; whoever has the decryption key can unlock the data and read its contents.


So What's End-to-End Encryption?

End-to-end encryption uses asymmetric encryption, which relies on two keys: a public key and a private key.

Anyone can view the public key, but the private key is only known to one person. This means that you need to use the private key to decrypt data encrypted with the public key.

Other forms of encryption use symmetric encryption, which requires a single key for decryption and encryption. Typically, traditional encryption systems encrypt the data on a device and send it to the server. After that, the data is decrypted for processing, then re-encrypted, and sent to its destination.

This encryption standard is called encryption in transit. Although the message remains unintelligible during transit and uses two encryption keys, it is still not the same as end-to-end encryption because the message is decrypted before reaching the destination. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is an excellent example of encryption in transit.

In symmetric encryption, the key can either be a password, code, or randomly generated numbers sent to the recipient, enabling them to decrypt the message. The encryption makes the message unintelligible to intermediaries but can be intercepted, decrypted, and read if the intermediary has the single key for decryption.

In other forms, end-to-end encryption applies encryption to the data and does not decrypt it until it arrives at the destination. End-to-end encryption ensures that no third-party entity or service can read it as data travels to its destination.

How Does End-to-End Encryption Work?

In end-to-end encryption, the endpoints store the cryptographic keys. When data is exchanged between two parties online, there's always an intermediary that hands off messages between the two parties. The intermediary can either be the Internet Service Provider's (ISP) server or an organization's server.

The public key used in end-to-end encryption prevents the intermediaries from eavesdropping on the messages sent between the two parties. To ensure a public key created by a recipient is legitimate, you need to embed it in a digitally signed certificate recognized by Certificate Authority. Any certificate signed by CA's public key can be counted as authentic.

A legitimate public key has the recipient's name and validly signed public key in a certificate. Any public key in a certificate that the CA hasn't digitally signed is considered illegitimate.

End-to-end encryption is usually not implemented by the user; it involves encryption services and software. For example, suppose your website has built-in end-to-end encryption tools. In that case, they can only be functional when you visit a site using web-based encryption standards, such as Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS).

Such a site is safe to use and offers encryption for all your data, meaning you can input your private information, such as passwords and credit card numbers. For example, when shopping online and you need to input your credit card number, end-to-encryption ensures that only you and the merchant's computer access the confidential information.


A Hypothetical Example of How End-to-End Encryption Works

If Mike sends a message to Angela, he gets Angela's public key from CA and encrypts the message using the public key. The message is then sent to an intermediary server, but the intermediary can't access the message's contents because it remains encrypted and unreadable. Instead, the intermediary server forwards the message to Angela, who will then receive the message and use her private key to decrypt it and read its contents.


End-to-end encryption is commonly used in finance, communication, and healthcare. It is also used by businesses and organizations to comply with data privacy and security laws. For instance, a Point-of-sale (POS) system uses end-to-end encryption to protect sensitive customer data.

Businesses complying with Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) also use end-to-end encryption.

Most websites have embraced end-to-end encryption to protect their visitors' private information. Modern websites have made this possible by having built-in tools that support encryption. This is why most Universal Resource Locators (URLs) start with https:// instead of http://, the 's' standing for secure.

For this reason, if you visit a website and its URL begins with 'https://' and it has a grey padlock icon, that means it's a secure and authentic website. Whatever information you exchange with the website will be encrypted; you don't need to worry about hackers stealing your confidential information.

Wi-Fi networks with modern security standards use encryption as well. That's the reason outsiders can't see what you're doing on your home network if they don't have authorized access.

Smartphones, laptops, personal computers, and tablets all use encryption to secure users' data. Therefore, you can only access the data if you have a decryption key, which is your PIN or password.

Advantages of End-to-End Encryption

End-to-end encryption ensures messages sent over a communication channel are secure and private. It ensures that messages are undecryptable and can only be accessed by the recipient and not anyone else.

In a communication channel, end-to-end encryption protects your data from prying eyes. Prying eyes can either be your ISP, hackers, or the government. Although the intermediary server notices that information has been sent, it won't see the message's contents.

There's also no way to tamper with encrypted messages using this type of encryption. As a result, end-to-end encryption is ideal for use in countries that spy on its citizens because it protects free speech and shields activists, dissidents, and journalists from government intimidation.

End-to-End Encryption Limitations

After learning the advantages of end-to-end encryption, it is logical to assume it offers total protection for messages sent over a communication channel. However, despite its advantages, end-to-end encryption has a few drawbacks.

For instance, if someone gains access to your communication device, they can read all messages, both sent and received. This means you need to ensure your device doesn't fall into the wrong hands.

End-to-end encryption might not be future-proof; it might be secure presently but may not be secure in the future. While end-to-end encryption might resist encryption-breaking efforts from even supercomputers, it might not withstand quantum computers if developed in the future.

While end-to-end encryption protects the message contents, it does not conceal some parts of the information, such as the date and time the message was sent or the names of the participants. Such information is called metadata, and snoopers can access it. Moreover, when the snoopers know the data receiver, they can attempt to intercept it after being unencrypted.

Sometimes one endpoint can be compromised, and an attacker may see the contents of the message before encryption or after decryption. Attackers can also retrieve keys and execute a Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack if they steal a public key from a compromised endpoint.

Some providers cannot be trusted to offer end-to-end encryption. For example, they may claim to offer end-to-end encryption but instead, offer encryption in transit. Also, they may store the data on their server and access it afterward.

Sending emails between end-to-end encrypted email platforms is easy, and the message content is automatically encrypted. But this is not the case if you want to send an email from an end-to-end encrypted email platform like ProtonMail to a different service like Gmail. The ProtonMail user will need to set up PGP first to encrypt the message before sending the email.

Also, end-to-end encrypted mail does not encrypt all email contents. For example, it encrypts the message body but not the subject line.

Another big downside of this type of encryption is that if you lose or forget your decryption key, you'll lose access to the data even if you're the rightful owner or recipient. Some services offer recovery keys to their users, but most don't, which means it isn't a guaranteed way to recover encrypted data.

If you lose both your password or private key and recovery keys, there will be no way to decrypt and access the data.

This is one of the reasons companies like Apple prefer not to use end-to-end encryption when it comes to cloud backups. Instead, they tend to hold the encryption key such that if the user forgets the password, they can reset it and reaccess their data. This is both advantageous and disadvantageous to the user.

Here's why.

The advantage of this option is that it allows the user to reset the password and recover their data, but the downside is that because Apple holds the private key, they can access users' data if they want to.

It is also one of the reasons Gmail has not adopted the use of end-to-end encryption. Imagine if you forget your Gmail password and there's no way to recover it. You'll lose all your saved data, and you'll need to open a new Gmail account each time this happens.


Is End-to-End Encryption Hackable?

The scope of end-to-end encryption does not address risks at the endpoints. For this reason, a user's device can still be hacked to obtain the private key.

If hackers gain access to the private key, they can read the recipient's decrypted messages in real-time and from log files.

The most common technique hackers use to access encrypted data is by adding their own layer of encryption that uses their key. But your end-to-end chats are entirely secure unless you make your device vulnerable to hacker exploitation.


History of End-to-End Encryption

Different encryption methods have been used for decades now. But the closest encryption method that resembled end-to-end encryption is Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), launched in the 1990s by Phil Zimmerman.

PGP spread among users who wanted to secure their email messages because it provided an extra layer of protection.

It used symmetric and public key encryption, allowing users to send encrypted messages without exchanging their private encryption keys.

Modern end-to-end encryption strategies gained traction in 2013 after Edward Snowden leaked data showing how the National Security Agency and other intelligence agencies were gaining access to users' data. For this reason, tech giants like Apple and Facebook began embracing end-to-end encryption.


Apps That Use End-to-End Encryption

Unlike in the past, many communication apps have adopted end-to-end encryption to protect their users' privacy. Even normal text messaging applications like Apple's iMessage use end-to-end encryption.

Password managers, such as BitWarden, LastPass, and DashLane use end-to-end encryption. So there's no way the companies can access your password from their vault even if they wanted to because you're the only one holding the private key that can unlock the information.

File storage providers also use end-to-end encryption, and yet they can't access the contents of the files you store on their cloud service. For this reason, it is advisable to opt for end-to-end encrypted file storage services instead of traditional cloud storage services with no end-to-end encryption.

Signal, a private messaging app, offers end-to-end encryption by default. In addition, social media giant Facebook adopted the use of end-to-end encryption in all its three messaging services back in 2019. Some other private messaging apps that support end-to-end encryption include Telegram, Viber, LINE, KakaoTalk, Dust, Threema, etc.

Very few emailing services use end-to-end encryption because it requires PGP encryption which is complicated to set up. Email providers that offer end-to-end encryption include ProtonMail, Microsoft Outlook, Tutanota, Mailfence, and Hushmail.

Google has still not adopted end-to-end encryption in Gmail communications and other Google-related applications but prefers to use another form of encryption called 'encryption in transit.' When you request information from Google or log in to your Gmail account, you connect to Google servers using secure HTTPS.

No third party, including but not limited to your ISP, network operator, or users connected to your home network, can see or intercept your communication. It also uses another encryption method called 'encryption at rest' to secure data stored on its cloud servers. If anyone sneaks into their data centers and steals hard drives, they won't see or read the data because it will be unintelligible.

The only downside to these two encryption methods employed by Google is they (Google) hold the private key that can decrypt your data. For this reason, they can see your emails, documents, files you share, and everything else if they wanted to. Therefore, end-to-end encryption is recommended because it offers advanced security compared to encryption in transit and at rest.

The only way of preventing 'Big Tech' companies — namely Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft, from seeing the contents of your messages is by using end-to-end encryption. This is because end-to-end encryption denies them access to the private key, and instead, the key is stored on your device. As a result, only the endpoints (sender and receiver of information) have access to the private key to unlock the data.


Do You Need End-to-End Encryption?

End-to-end encryption is essential, depending on the type of data you're transferring online. Suppose you value online privacy and security and have information to protect; end-to-end encryption suits you. In most cases, end-to-end encryption occurs without the user's knowledge.

For instance, WhatsApp communications are end-to-end encrypted by default. But if you frequently conduct online banking and e-commerce transactions, your data needs to be encrypted at all times.      


End-to-End Encryption Opponents

Some law enforcement and intelligence agencies have always been critical opponents of end-to-end encryption. They argue that such a type of encryption limits their ability to detect illegal activity on applications and platforms. Their main concern has been how end-to-end encryption makes it difficult to identify and investigate child abuse cases on private messaging platforms.

For this reason, the European Commission (EC) is preparing legislation intending to curb the spread of child exploitation material shared in private messaging platforms. The legislation goes by the name "Chat Control," which mandates the search of personal electronic messages of any EU citizen presumed to be a suspect in sharing, searching, or distributing child pornography.

To access end-to-end encrypted communication, the EC is seeking to introduce client-side scanning. Client-side scanning would require private messaging platforms to create a hash value of content shared on their platform. They would then compare the data stored from client-side scanning to a database containing allegedly illegal content.

If there's a match, the message/information will not be sent to the recipient but law enforcement authorities instead. Some security experts are totally against this approach, claiming to be a breach of data security. This is because it gives the power to third parties to check the contents of encrypted communications through a backdoor.

Client-side scanning jeopardizes end-to-end encryption because it creates a backdoor for intelligence agencies and hackers to access personal user information. Most importantly, it can be exploited for other purposes such as target advertising and blocking political conversations.

In 2018, Australian lawmakers passed a bill compelling technology companies to provide the government access to encrypted communication channels. This gave the government power to secretly order technology companies to re-engineer their software to spy on users. The law is based on the United Kingdom's Investigatory Powers Act that compels communication companies operating in the UK to hand over private keys to decrypt encrypted data to law enforcement agencies.

In the United States, there's a similar bill dubbed 'The EARN IT Act of 2020' that requires every message sent in private messaging platforms to first pass through a government-approved scanning software. Messaging platforms that fail to pass their data through the software risk losing their operating licenses. The bill has been amended severally, but it still poses a huge risk to the privacy rights of its citizens.



What makes end-to-end encryption different from other types of encryption is that the sender and receiver can decrypt and read the message contents. In addition, encryption occurs at the device level, meaning the data is encrypted before it leaves the device. Lastly, instead of storing the decryption key at an intermediary server, the key is stored on the user's device to prevent third-party access.

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